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Representative Government 代议制政府 Electoral System 选举系统 Parliament 议会 Lower House 下议院

How are votes in a national election translated into seats in a parliament?

  1. Plurality-Majority,排除极端主义和边缘组织
  2. Semi-Proportional Representation
  3. Propertional Representation,让席位分布尽可能接近选票分布

In a federal system, proportional representation means a given state or canton receives a proportion of seats in the government commensurate with its population.

In a federal system, proportional representation means a given state or canton receives a proportion of seats in the government commensurate with its population. For example, in the U.S., PR determines the number of seats each state has in the House. In a PR-system such as in most European countries, proportional representation means each party contesting in a national election receives a number of representatives according to the votes receives.

整数分配问题 Apportionment

The central problem of PR is how to convert votes to seats. In its simplest form, the solution is to assign a fraction of seats equal to that party’s fraction of the votes. However the devil is in the details: how to assign the fractions of seat. This question is surprisingly difficult, and over the last 200 years has lead to a variety of methods, each with advantages and disadvantages. They fall in one of two categories:

Largest Remainder methods (LR), also called Quota Methods. Divisor methods (D).

A summary description of eleven methods is illustrated in Table 1.5 (p. 17). It includes both European and American names for the schemes.

Brief History Of Democracy

标准的叙述是开始自 5 世纪的雅典,如何在文艺复兴的意大利共和国中找到痕迹,直到 1776年的美国革命才得以充分体现

在整个历史上的各个社会中都可以找到民主的萌芽。 在古代美索不达米亚和古代以色列部落中可以发现“原始”民主的痕迹。

非洲殖民前的7000年历史中,原始的民主是传播最广的政治系统。

最早关于选举系统的数学推导是,1781 年的 Jean-Charles de Borda

1857 年 1859 年 黑尔

“to have exactly, and for the first time, solved the difficulty of popular representation; and by doing so, to have raised up the cloud and gloom of uncertainty which hung over the future of representative government and therefore of civilisation.”

Trouble, Droop correct , 归纳法证明

此配额的理由如下。 假设我们的政党要争夺2个席位。 任何获得超过1/3票数或P / 3的政党都将赢得议席。 对于3个席位的比赛,任何拥有P / 4票以上的政党都将赢得一个席位。 通过归纳论证,在争夺S席位的情况下,任何拥有P /(S + 1)票的政党都将赢得一席; 任何一方以2P /(S + 1)票赢得2个席位; 证明其合理性的一个更简单的论据如下:任何配额Q都应使S这样的配额不超过票数,或。 将最低Q定义为Droop配额,因此使用上面的公式。

代议制政府趋向集体平庸

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