Representative Government 代议制政府 Electoral System 选举系统 Parliament 议会 Lower House 下议院
How are votes in a national election translated into seats in a parliament?
- Semi-Proportional Representation
- Propertional Representation，让席位分布尽可能接近选票分布
In a federal system, proportional representation means a given state or canton receives a proportion of seats in the government commensurate with its population.
In a federal system, proportional representation means a given state or canton receives a proportion of seats in the government commensurate with its population. For example, in the U.S., PR determines the number of seats each state has in the House. In a PR-system such as in most European countries, proportional representation means each party contesting in a national election receives a number of representatives according to the votes receives.
The central problem of PR is how to convert votes to seats. In its simplest form, the solution is to assign a fraction of seats equal to that party’s fraction of the votes. However the devil is in the details: how to assign the fractions of seat. This question is surprisingly difficult, and over the last 200 years has lead to a variety of methods, each with advantages and disadvantages. They fall in one of two categories:
Largest Remainder methods (LR), also called Quota Methods. Divisor methods (D).
A summary description of eleven methods is illustrated in Table 1.5 (p. 17). It includes both European and American names for the schemes.
Brief History Of Democracy
标准的叙述是开始自 5 世纪的雅典，如何在文艺复兴的意大利共和国中找到痕迹，直到 1776年的美国革命才得以充分体现
最早关于选举系统的数学推导是，1781 年的 Jean-Charles de Borda
1857 年 1859 年 黑尔
“to have exactly, and for the first time, solved the difficulty of popular representation; and by doing so, to have raised up the cloud and gloom of uncertainty which hung over the future of representative government and therefore of civilisation.”
Trouble, Droop correct , 归纳法证明
此配额的理由如下。 假设我们的政党要争夺2个席位。 任何获得超过1/3票数或P / 3的政党都将赢得议席。 对于3个席位的比赛，任何拥有P / 4票以上的政党都将赢得一个席位。 通过归纳论证，在争夺S席位的情况下，任何拥有P /（S + 1）票的政党都将赢得一席； 任何一方以2P /（S + 1）票赢得2个席位； 证明其合理性的一个更简单的论据如下：任何配额Q都应使S这样的配额不超过票数，或。 将最低Q定义为Droop配额，因此使用上面的公式。